Online trading is one of the most dynamicdeveloping segments of the world and Russian economy. Ordering products in online stores has become commonplace for Russians. Virtual "shopping" is characterized in our country by growing popularity. This is expressed both in the consumer demand, and in the aspect of business activities. There are new brands. Many businesses, which for a long time were only present in the "offline", open online shopping portals.
What are the nuances to consider when buying products in a "virtual" environment? How to order goods on the Internet and, if necessary, return it?
To start a little history, as well as market analytics.
E-commerce on the Internet is relativelya young phenomenon (however, as in itself the World Network). In the first years of the virtual space, no one thought that through the Internet you can buy and sell goods. Moreover, until 1990, the use of online channels for commercial purposes was banned in some countries (in particular, in the US). But over time, private business began to expand in the virtual space. Restrictions on the commercial exploitation of the Internet were removed.
Already in 1994, there was an online store Amazon,subsequently became one of the largest global players in the online trading market. In the same year, the first companies appeared that provided assistance to entrepreneurs in organizing online payments (in particular, First Virtual was engaged in this). In 1996, the world's largest payment systems, Visa and MasterCard, created a special communication standard, according to which the card could be paid on the Internet.
Now the volume of the global e-commerce market is about 1.2 trillion. US dollars.
The domain "Ru" was, as is known, registered in1994. Almost immediately, prototype sites began to appear, which they used to use today: news, entertainment, and portals, where you could buy various products. The first online stores, as experts say, were not very successful projects. Firstly, because in those years the Internet was used by a very small number of citizens. Secondly, the purchase of online goods was considered an absolute exotic, and few trusted "virtual" sellers.
But over time, online trading began to gainturns. One of the very first online stores in Russia is, in particular, the project books.ru (sale of books). It was launched in 1996 and has been working successfully so far.
The real boom of e-commerce in Russia camefor the second half of the 2000s. Experts attribute this to the proliferation of cheap channels of access to the worldwide network. The question of how to order goods on the Internet, has ceased to be exotic for Russians.
Now the volume of the Russian online retail market is about 540 billion rubles. In the past few years, segment revenue has grown by 30-40% per year.
Who are they - the largest Russian online stores? One of the most recognized in the business community ratings of online retailers was this year's magazine Forbes.
First place in the list of largestInternet retailers took the electronics store "Yulmart", the turnover of the company exceeded 1 billion dollars. Second place - at "Citylink" with revenues of about 860 million, which leads the activity in the same segment as the leader of the rating. "Bronze" won a store WildBerries, selling clothes and shoes. The proceeds of this retailer are about 530 million dollars.
Among other major market playersInternet-shop - Ozon.ru store with revenue of $ 350 million, Biglion discount portal with turnover exceeding 330 million, portal "Refrigerator.Ru", which earned 310 million, the company "Technopoint", which sold goods amounting to 260 million, Enter, which sold products for 207 million, as well as corporations such as Volt, Utkonos (revenues 206 million and 200 million respectively).
In the Top 20 ranking compiled by Forbes, also included portals KupiVIP, Vasko, Pixel24, Lamoda, E96 and a number of other well-known brands.
E-commerce on the Internet - one of the mostdynamically developing segments of the Russian economy. At the same time, the competition in this industry, as analysts say, grows from year to year. Some experts believe that the stage of explosive growth is over. Now the market can wait for systematic optimization. The largest Russian online stores, according to forecasts of experts, will gradually develop their presence in the regions, increase revenue through sales dynamics.
According to analyst estimates, by 2020, volumessales in the online retail segment in Russia can reach 70 billion dollars, and by 2025 - 100 billion. Development of this industry largely depends, experts believe, on the quality of logistics, the work of federal postal services, development and dissemination of private organizations engaged in delivery of goods.
Internet commerce in Russia is regulated by general and special legislation. Consider the key sources of law governing online trading in the Russian Federation.
Firstly, this is the Civil Code. It contains the basic principles of the relationship between the seller and the buyer as an individual and a legal entity.
Secondly, it is the Law on the Protection of Consumer Rights (in modern editions). This is an example of special legislation. It details the rights of buyers, the duties of the seller.
Thirdly, this is the Federal Law on the fundamentals of state regulationtrade in the Russian Federation. This act is another example of special legislation that is adjacent to the sphere of regulation with the previous source of law. This act is recognized by many analysts as the main law on online stores.
Fourthly, this is the Government Decision related to the approval of the rules of trade "by remote means"
Other important legal acts regulating sales on the Internet:
It is probably worth clearing what exactlythe legislator means by the "remote way" of doing business. This sale is based on contracts that are concluded by sellers and buyers through communication channels. At the same time, direct acquaintance with the goods occurs only when they are received by the buyer.
Let us list the most specific legislativerequirements for online shopping. Very many aspects of regulation affect the information component. That is, the owner of the online store should place detailed information about the goods on the web pages. Namely:
Also, the owner of the online store must specify the location of his office.
Strict requirements for howinformation is drawn up (displayed), laws do not contain. The seller can publish the necessary information as an advertisement, an annotation to the product or in the format of a public offer. For example, some online clothing and footwear stores include information about the product in the cards of its description, and other information on specialized web pages.
Thus, Russian online retailers are obliged to place on their web pages exhaustive information about, how to order goods on the Internet (and also return it), what are the features of the products sold and the specifics of payment.
The Law on Advertising contains a number of special requirementsin relation to online stores. They, in turn, relate to the direct processing of advertising messages. In particular, a graphic or text banner should contain such information:
Now let's move on to the practical part: the procedures for buying and returning goods in virtual stores.
Very simple. Selecting the desired product (or several of its samples) in the catalog on the seller's website, the buyer draws up its delivery. The main options here are three:
The generally accepted rules on the market concerning the stage at which the goods are paid are not accepted. The online store may require both prepayment and allow to pay when receiving the product.
If you need to prepay, then it is carried out by one of the following methods:
As a rule, in the structure of modern tradingOnline sites have web pages where you can leave comments, write reviews about online stores. To look at them before buying a product is very useful.
Just like with the purchase in regular, "offline" stores, customers of online retailers can return and exchange goods legally.
First of all, the seller is obliged to place on the pages of his store's website information about where exactly the buyer needs to bring the goods to be exchanged or returned.
Due to the fact that the buyer is offline andonline stores are initially in unequal conditions (when placing orders through the Internet, one can not, generally speaking, touch or try on the goods), the rights of the client of the "virtual" seller, according to experts, are more protected. This implies a certain discomfort for the owners of online stores.
One of the most revealing practicalmanifestations of this very security in the fact that the buyer has every right to refuse the transaction with the seller until the time of receipt of the goods (in the mail or from the hands of the courier). At the same time, all the costs that the buyer could incur until this moment, should be compensated.
According to the law, a return to the online store can be made within seven days from the date of purchase. An important condition - the original presentation of the product must be preserved.
Many experts believe - Russians are not tooworried about the technical aspect of how to order goods on the Internet. Choose the products, pay for them, receive and return the most buyers can. The work of services for the delivery and exchange of goods by modern retailers is established.
The most important thing now for customers of Russian online stores is the range, level of consulting support and quality of goods.
One of the main competitive advantages thatmany online shops are seeking to possess - customer feedback. What is not surprising: the more positive the attitude of existing customers, the more likely the emergence of new ones, the more repeated purchases are made. Let's see what the Russian customers write about their online stores. Consider, for example, the opinions of buyers about the two major retailers from the Forbes list above.
Ozon customers.ru characterize this online store as a place where there is always a wide choice of goods. Many buyers note low prices in comparison with offline sales outlets. This, as a rule, concerns books, sometimes - electronics.
There is also a large selection of literature. Customers praise the rating system that is used in this online store, a large number of payment methods. Many customers of Ozon.ru are pleased to note that there is an opportunity to pick up the goods at branded issuing points in many cities.
Let's see how the characters can lookthe largest online clothing stores buyers' reviews on the example of another popular online retailer - Lamoda.ru. Customers of this company are also, on the whole, very satisfied with their choice. Praise the site for a wide selection, fast delivery. Mark the fact that the goods when you receive the courier can be tried on. If it does not fit - immediately return.
There is a version that the bulk of the reviews,occurring on online shopping portals, are written not by buyers, but by specially hired people. The fact that a certain percentage of virtual opinions are really "custom-made" is a fact, one might say, well-known. It's easy to go to any "freelance" portal and find an assignment related to writing a review about an online store. Positive or negative - regardless of the real opinion of the person writing about this virtual retailer.
However, calculate the percentage of false reviewsis problematic enough. Russian users are usually socially active people. And that's why they can find time to leave comments on the pages of online stores that accurately reflect the real opinion.
Most customers of online stores,certainly, reads reviews. And if only for this reason the mini-compositions of other buyers are valuable both from the point of view of business development and in the aspect of informing customers about the peculiarities of the operation of online stores.</ p>