Many of us know the names of at least someheroes of the Great Patriotic War who bravely fought with the enemy, freeing his land from him. Heroes Panfilovtsy, Maresiev, who became a direct prototype of the character "The Tale of a Real Man," Pokryshkin, who surpassed the German air aces in the skill of fighting ... But not everyone remembers that in that terrible war, alongside adults, there were children, their elder comrades all the hardships and adversities of the war.
It is commonly believed that the Great Patriotic War carried awayabout 27 million people. According to the latest research, 10 million of them are soldiers, and the rest are old men, women and children. Those whom the war, according to numerous international conventions, should not offend. Alas, the reality is much worse.
Almost all teenagers who stayed inthe rear, are worthy of the title of Heroes, since they worked on an equal basis with adults, issuing up to two norms of production per day. They died from exhaustion, died under bombings, falling asleep from a constant lack of sleep, fell under the cars and turned out to be crippled, having hit with the hand or foot into the machinery of the machine ... All brought the Victory closer as they could.
In the Soviet years, the schools studied the names of thoseteenagers who fought at the front. Many people remember the novel "The Son of the Regiment". So, the story described in it is not unique. On the contrary, many heroes-pioneers of the Great Patriotic War fought in partisan detachments, constantly lived with the risk of exposure, being connected. For their lives no one would have given a penny: the Hitlerites were equally cruel to everyone. Today we list some of those children who gave their lives in exchange for peace for their country.
To forget about their exploit is a crime. Today it is difficult to find at least one major city, in which a monument to heroine pioneers has been erected, but the current youth are practically not interested in the immortal accomplishments of their contemporaries of the time.
It is easy to understand that there was a mass in the countryorphans. Despite the hardest time, the state fulfilled its obligations to the younger generation. A lot of orphanages and shelters were organized, where former military children often came to the difficult military roads, often having "adult" awards by that time.
Most educators and specialists of children'shouses were real heroes, aces of their own business. They were able to warm the children's souls, they could make them forget about the sufferings that the little ones suffered in the zones of military conflict. Unfortunately, among them there were those who "people" could only be called by their appearance.
In the field of fighting, the guys gathered and dug outFrom under the snow, rifles, pistols and other weapons, subsequently transferring them to the partisans. They were terribly risky, and it's not just the Germans who had to do it: on the battlefields there were even more unexploded mines and shells. Many heroes-pioneers of the Great Patriotic War were scouts, handed over medicines and dressings to guerrillas and detached from their soldiers. Often it was these little brave men who helped to arrange escapes for the captive Red Army men. The "children's" front became especially popular in Byelorussia.
Many children genuinely hated Germans, since inAs a result of the war, they lost all their relatives and friends, who were often killed right before their eyes. Left in the scorched and devastated villages, they were doomed to a terrible famine. This is not so often said, but Hitler's "doctors" often used children as donors. Of course, no one cared about their health. Many pioneer heroes, whose portraits are in the article, became cripples and invalids. Unfortunately, even in the official course of history, this is not said much.
A children's role in the air defensedefense of the country. The guys were on duty on the roofs of houses, dropping and carcass incendiary bombs, along with adults participated in the construction of various fortified areas. In the German-occupied areas, the heroes of the Great Patriotic War managed to collect warm clothes and other uniforms, which were then sent to partisan detachments and even to the active units of the Red Army.
Known labor feat children of war, when theyworked for days at defense enterprises. Child labor was used in the manufacture of fuses and fuses, smoke bombs and gas masks. Teenagers even participated in the assembly of tanks, not to mention the production of machine guns and rifles. Fearfully starving, they honestly grew vegetables on any suitable piece of land, in order to send them to the active army, soldiers. In school circles late in the night they sewed uniforms for the soldiers. Many of them, already deep old men, with a smile and tears recalled pencils made by children's hands, mittens and pea jackets.
Today in the press you can often find tearystories about "good" German soldiers. Yes, there were such. But how do you like the fun of the "valiant" Wehrmacht fighters who, after throwing a piece of bread in the field, arranged a real hunt for hungry children rushing to food? How many children died because of such fun of the Germans across the country! This is well written in the article Solokhin N. Ya. From the town Lyudinovo (Kaluga region) "We are not from childhood." Not surprisingly, the courage and courage of young fighters who experienced all the "delights" of enemy occupation, often amazed even veteran, battle-hardened soldiers.
Many of the names of the heroine pioneers remainedunknown, but we must remember about what these children had to go through. How many of these guys died in the first months of the war, trying to prevent the enemy in every way, we will hardly ever find out.
Take Fedya Samodurov, at least. He was only 14 years old when he became a "foster son" in the motorized rifle division, commanded by Captain A. Cernavin. They picked him up on the ashes in the Voronezh region, which used to be his native village. Bravely fought in battles for the city of Ternopil, helping machine-gun calculation. When all the soldiers were killed, one took up the machine gun. Long and stubbornly shooting back, he allowed the others to retreat. Killed by the death of the brave.
Vanya Kozlov. He was only 13 years old. Two years was under the tutelage of the fighters in the unit. Delivered them food, letters and newspapers, often making their way to the front under the crossfire of the enemy who attacked the USSR.
Pioneer heroes often not only performedfunctions of signalers, but they worked on a much more dangerous military field specialties. An example of this is Petya Tooth. This guy immediately decided to become a scout. His parents were killed, and so he wanted to pay off the Hitlerites in full. In the end, he became a gunner. Making his way directly into the enemy's position, he adjusted the volleys of artillery by radio. The military personnel know perfectly well how dangerous this profession is, what courage it takes to adjust the fire of its guns, in fact being in their zone of defeat! Petya also did not survive that war.
As you can see, heroes-pioneers of the Great Patriotic WarThe wars were not at all a unique phenomenon. The well-known writer Vladimir Bogomolov described the feat of a young scout in the novel "Ivan". At the very beginning of the war, the boy survived the death of his father and sister, who were his only relatives. He visited a partisan detachment, and then found himself in Trostyants, the death camp.
Severe conditions did not break him. He was killed in 1943. He was noticed by the traitors-policemen during the observation of the secret branch of the railway, along which the supply of the Germans was carried out. During the interrogations, the teenager held himself for 12 years directly, with dignity, without hiding his contempt and hatred for the enemy. He was shot, like many pioneer children. Heroes, however, were not only among the boys.
The fate of the girls was no less terrible. Zina Portnova, who turned 15 years old, left for Leningrad in the summer of 1941 in the village of Zuy Vitebsk region. My parents sent me to stay with relatives. Soon the war began, and the girl almost immediately joined the organization "Young Avengers", whose task was to help the partisans. Participated in the sabotage, poisoning the food in the dining room for the officers. She spread leaflets and conducted reconnaissance activities in the rear of the enemy. In a word, she did what other pioneer heroes did.
Zina Portnova was identified as a traitor and seizedat the end of 1943. During the interrogation, she managed to grab a pistol from the investigator's desk and shoot him and two others. Tried to run, but she was seized. After the most severe torture was shot January 13, 1944 in the prison of the city of Polotsk.
Fortunately, nevertheless there were among those who fought the children,who managed to survive this terrible time. One of them was Bogdanova Nadia. The pioneer hero paid a terrible price for his participation in the liberation movement.
In Vitebsk, her hometown, the war came early. Nadia immediately joined the partisan detachment, supplied the soldiers with food and medicine. At the end of 1941, she and her friend Vanya (he was only 12 years old) were captured by the Germans at the exit from the city. The Hitlerites did not get a word from the children, so they immediately sent them to be shot. Vanya was immediately struck by bullets, and Nadezhda lost the creature and fell literally a moment before she would have turned her breast in one gulp. In the pit filled with corpses, the girl was found guerrillas.
Like many other heroine pioneers, she foundin itself the strength to fight the hated enemy further. In 1942, Nadia managed to lay a charge of explosives on the bridge, which took off in the air along with German transport. Unfortunately, the policemen saw this. The child was brutally tortured, and then thrown into a snowdrift. It seems incredible, but Hope survived. She was almost blind, but the brilliant academician Filatov managed to restore her eyesight after the war.
The girl was awarded medals, the Order of the Red Banner of War and the Patriotic War of the 1st degree.
Like many of his peers, Volodya Dubinin inthe beginning of the war went to the partisans. In Kerch, where they fought, there were deep quarries. Having established a headquarters there, the soldiers painfully "bitten" the Hitlerites, constantly arranging attacks on them. Smoke the guerrillas did not work.
They solved the issue more simply: carefully tracing people and finding out about all the moves, the Germans immured them with cement and bricks. But young Volodya Dubinin, climbing into the smallest branches of the mines, regularly continued to deliver food, drink and ammunition to people. Then the Hitlerites, angry at the lack of progress in the destruction of the partisans, decided to completely flood the quarries. Volodya learned about this almost immediately. Passing information to his comrades, he began to build a system of dams on a par with them. When the water stopped, she reached the soldiers to the waist.
In 1942, during one of the next sorties,Volodya came across soldiers ... Soviet soldiers! It turned out that this was part of the landing, which liberated Kerch. Unfortunately, when the Germans retreated, the Germans closed the approaches to the quarries with a dense network of minefields. A teenager and four sappers blew up on one of them, having managed to reach the entrance to the mines before that ... Like many other biographies of the heroine pioneers, Vladimir's feat was immortalized only after the war.
No less tragic is the story of Oli Demesh, whoTogether with his younger sister Lida, she exploded with magnetic mines the tanks with fuel at the station of Orsha. Girls attracted far less attention than boys and grown men. Neither their account - seven (!) Blown up echelons and 24 enemy soldiers.
Lida often took with her a bag for coal andlong walked along the tracks, memorizing the time of arrival of enemy convoys, the number of soldiers arrived, the types of arms brought. In case she was stopped by sentries, she said that she was collecting coal for heating the room in which the German soldiers live. Lydia was killed, like many pioneer heroes. The photos of their faces are all that remained in memory of these heroic teenagers. She was shot with the mother of the girls.
For the head of Oli the fascists promised a cow, landput on and 10 thousand marks of monetary compensation. The most valuable was her photo, sent to all posts, secret agents and policemen. Grab the girl failed. She took part in the "rail war" for a long time, fought in the partisan detachment.
One of the youngest fighters is Valya Kotik. A pioneer hero was born in 1930. For a long time, the boy and his comrades were connected, collected weapons and ammunition in the woods, then handed them over to the partisans. The command of the detachment, appreciating his courage and selflessness, made Valentine connected. He quickly and accurately transmitted data on the strength and armament of the enemy to his older comrades, and one day managed to liquidate the enemy officer.
Soon after, the boy finallymoved to the partisans. He died at the age of 14, being mortally wounded during the storming of the town of Izyaslav. To date, Valya Kotik, a pioneer hero, is considered the youngest of those guys who took death with weapons in their hands.
In 1942, sitting in the observation post atroad, Lenya Golikov saw how the elegant, varnished car of the Germans was passing along it. Strangely enough, she had no escort. The young partisan did not lose his head and immediately threw a grenade into it. The car was thrown away, she stopped. Immediately, a pair of Germans jumped out of it and rushed to the side of the kid.
But Lenya Golikov met them with dense fire from the PPSh. One German killed immediately, and the second - when he yanked toward the forest. One of the victims was Richard Witz, the general.
In the beginning of 1943 the detachment, in which Lyonya was,spent the night in the hut three kilometers from the location of the Germans. The next morning literally riddled it with machine guns: a traitor was found in the village. The title of Hero was received posthumously by a teenager. Like other exploits of the pioneer heroes, his act served a good service, greatly undermining the morale of the invaders.
In their memoirs, the Germans often recall that inThey had an extremely difficult time in the USSR: "It seemed that every pillar shot at us, every child could be a warrior who fought no worse than an adult soldier."
Sasha Borodulin knew perfectly well what fate awaitschildren who fell into the clutches of the police and the Hitlerites. He himself found partisans and insistently began to ask to fight. To the adults did not doubt his desire, the boy showed them a carbine with a stock of cartridges, beaten off from a German motorcyclist.
The commander who knew Sasha before the war,allowed him to join them. At that time, Alexander "knocked" as much as 16 years. A young soldier was immediately assigned to a reconnaissance squad. Time has shown that the commander was not mistaken in the makings of the boy. Sasha was extremely brave and resourceful. Once he was sent to the German rear with the task - to find out the strength of the enemy, to map his main forces. The boy boldly walked around the station, managing to make his way to the windows of residential buildings right under the nose of the sentries. He quickly recognized and remembered all the necessary data.
The task was brilliantly executed. In that battle, Alexander acted boldly, literally from the first rows of throwing enemies with grenades. He received three heavy bullet wounds at once, but did not abandon his comrades. Only after all the partisans, completely defeating the enemy, went into the forest, Sasha independently bandaged himself and, covering the withdrawal, joined his comrades.
The authority of a fearless fighter after that increasedIncredibly. The guerrillas sent the seriously wounded Sasha to the hospital, but he promised to return right after recovery. He kept his word completely and soon fought again with his comrades-in-arms.
One summer the partisans suddenly met with a punitive detachment, in which there were up to 200 people. The fight was terrible, everyone fought to death. In that battle, Borodulin also perished.
Like all the pioneer heroes of the Second World War, he was presented to the award. Posthumously.
Many educators and nannies heroically diedwhen defending Moscow against enemy advancing troops. Children were in kindergartens almost all day. The war deprived young people of the most precious - childhood. They quickly forgot how to play, to be capricious and practically not mischievous.
However, there was one wartime childan unusual game. To the hospital. Often this was not a game at all, as the kids helped the wounded, who were often placed in the premises of kindergartens. But "in the war" the children of the war practically did not play. They lacked the cruelty, pain and hatred that they saw daily. In addition, nobody wanted to be a "Fritz". People who were sung by the war in the childhood can be easily recognized: they hate films about her, they do not like to remember the events that deprived them of their homes, families, friends and childhood.</ p>