What is Mangazeya? The first Russian polar city of the XVII century in Siberia. New Mangazeya

What is Mangazeya? The city-legend, founded in 1601 in the Turukhansk lands, which lasted only 70 years. About the unprecedented wealth of the city legends were composed. Over the centuries it became like a fairy tale, as the location of the legendary city was not known. In 1900, an expedition of the Russian traveler VO Markgraf discovered and described an ancient settlement, which confirmed the stories about the existence at the very beginning of the XVII century behind the Arctic Circle of a rich Russian city.

what is mangazee

Education name Mangazeya

The word Mangazeya for a long time denotedThe legendary city, which was called "golden-boiling". What is Mangazeya, how did this word appear? Scientists and ethnographers assume that the name Mangazeya originated in the name of Prince Makasei (Mongkasi), the leader of the local Samoyed tribe, so the Russian pioneers called the local inhabitants - Nenets, Enets and Selkups, who ate hungry their fellow tribesmen. There is an opinion that the word Mangazeya came from the ancient name of the river Taz. Another version says that the name came from the tribe of the Moldogonese, so in the past they called modern Enets.

disappeared city

The first expedition

The first mention of people living behind the landYugorsk, appeared at the end of the XV century. This is evidenced by the Novgorod chroniclers, who wrote that behind the Eastern country and Yugra live Samoyeds, called Malgonzeys. Russian fishermen for sables already at that time well mastered this region.

The history of Mangazeya began with the first detachments,sent to these places by Boris Godunov. In 1600, the governor Miron Shakhovsky with a hundred of the streltsy went there from Tobolsk, but, it is believed, as a result of the storm, he lost ships and the detachment's further path was overland. On the Pura, the unit was attacked by the Yenisei and Purov "Samoyed". As a result of the collision, some of the streltsy died, and the wounded voivode with the remnants of the detachment continued on its way.

There is speculation that Samoyeds were hiredRussian fishermen who did not want to pay to the treasury, because they understood that the appearance of sovereigns in these places would have stopped the freemen. The fate of the detachment remained unknown for a long time. In the footsteps of the first expedition in 1601, a second detachment of two hundred archers was sent, led by voevods Savluk Pushkin and Vasily Mosalsky, who reached the remains of the detachment of Shakhovsky prison and church.

history of mangazee

First Settlement

The detachment of Pushkin and Mosalsky, having reached Mangazeya,located on the high right bank of the river Taz, three hundred kilometers from the mouth, proceeded to the construction of the prison and the laying of the land. By that time, supposedly Shakhovskiy died from wounds, therefore Mosalsky and Pushkin are considered the first voevoda. What is Mangazeya, they knew at that time in Russia, as rumors of these lands, where fur-bearing animals were in large numbers, reached Moscow.

In 1603 by decree of Tsar Boris Godunov wasa new governor, Fyodor Bulgakov, was sent. Together with him was a clergyman with church utensils. When it was laid the guest yard. In 1606, Vasily Shuisky sent new voevoda - D. Zherebtsov and K. Davydov. State power was firmly established in this region.

new mangazese

The first city beyond the Arctic Circle

In 1607 the fortress was built - the Kremlinfive towers. At the entrance was the Spassky Tower, which had a quadrangle in its plan. There were two gates under it. Four towers are located in the corners of a powerful fence, which has a width of 3 meters. Assumption was arranged opposite the Ostsekovka River, the Davydovskaya Tower - opposite the Taz River, the Tilovskaya and Zubtsovskaya towers went out into the taiga.

In the Kremlin itself there were two churches - Troitskaya and Uspenskaya, the voivodeship yard, customs, riding a cottage, a prison. Officially registered sovereigns were only a hundred people - archers and Cossacks.

It was built 200 huts, a church, a guest yard,public baths, barns, shopping bazaars, guest houses. In the village lived more than a thousand people. These were artisans, mostly casters and blacksmiths, as well as traders, fishers. There were many in the city of temporary residents, mostly merchants, as well as vagabonds, drunken yaryzyk and dissolute women.

then this Mangazeya 2

Golden Mangazeya

What is rich in Mangazeya, what is specialwas in this city? By craft and trade of gold junk, the so-called pelts of fur-bearing animals, which in many cases were in the district, were called. From all over the Taz region, hunters flocked here, most of whom were aborigines. There was a barter trade, in which the role of money was carried out by fur pelts, especially sable fur.

Merchants drove essential goods, inmainly salt, flour, other products, clothing and household utensils, which were exchanged for fur. Highly valued and metal products, so the bulk of the inhabitants of the village were artisans. Flowering of fish farming, cattle breeding, shipping was developed.

Why the city disappeared

In 1671 the garrison was ordered to leavethe city together with the inhabitants and move to the Turukhansk wintering area, where a new Mangazeya was laid. Now it is the city of Staroturukhansk. The main causes of disappearance can be called:

  • Closing the sea passage to the city. The city was founded on the initiative of the state as a stronghold for the development of Siberia and for collecting yasak. He brought a huge profit to the treasury. Here traded English, Dutch and German merchants. The rumor of sparsely populated lands reached the government of these countries. The tsar, fearing the interest of foreigners, issued a decree on closing the sea passage on pain of death. Foreign traders, and with them Russian merchants-pomors did not come here again. This is the main reason that turned Mangazeyu into a disappeared city.
  • Sharp reduction of the livestock of the fur-bearing animal.
  • Introduction of new customs rules, when trade became unprofitable.
  • Fires.
  • Hunger. From 1641 to 1644, not a single eagle with bread and salt came to the city because of strong storms. Hunger and disease began.
  • Wealth and distance were the cause of the boundless arbitrariness of the governor. The feud between the two commanders - Palitsyn and Kokarev, led to an armed confrontation.

Gradually, the remains of the settlement without residentscollapsed and overgrown with taiga. Stories about the golden Mangasee turned into legends and legends, which excited the imagination of people who were trying to find the remains of a fairy-tale city.

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