In connection with the changes that occur in thesocial life of the country, the priorities of values are also revised in the school, new installations are being set up, innovative means are being sought to achieve the set goals.
Federal state standards wereDeveloped to ensure that from the educational institution there are bright, creative individuals who are able to independently acquire the necessary knowledge. In order for schoolchildren to make informed decisions, plan their activities, adapt easily in a new situation, a special niche in the renewed education system was taken up by children's project activities.
Before the school teachers a complexthe task is the formation of a harmoniously developed personality. The modern scientific system presents rather strict requirements to the presentation and design of various materials, therefore the children's project activity must be thought out. How to teach students to correctly formulate a project, determine its main goal, set tasks?
GEF was developed to help teachers. Project activities on new requirements are an indispensable condition for the work of both the student and the teacher. The pedagogical council decides on the form in which the children will work on the projects.
The urgent task of modern educationis the formation of tolerance, communication skills, independence. For this, computer technology is not enough. They will become only an instrument for the transfer and transformation of information obtained in the process of study. The society puts before the school an order - the education of citizens who are able to adapt to the realities of modern life. It is the research method that helps to cope with this task, and therefore children's projects are gaining such popularity.
Translated from the Latin language, the project sounds like"Thrown forward." This technique is a set of educational and cognitive techniques that allow you to cope in the course of the student's independent actions with some kind of problem. After the work is finished, the students are provided with ready-made projects. We owe the project activity to the USA. At the beginning of the last century, American educator and philosopher J. Dewey proposed to build education by involving schoolchildren in practical activities. The development of the project assumed a personal interest of the student in obtaining the result.
In Russia, project training was introduced under thethe leadership of ST Shatsky, a famous Russian teacher. At the beginning of the 20th century, he assembled a group of associates, together with whom he analyzed the application of project methods in the school, their effectiveness. In foreign countries, the method of projects was in demand, because it combined theoretical information and the practical application of specific problems.
Children's projects must meet certain requirements:
The development of the project should be carried out taking into accountits typological features used in the classification. Dominating activity is supposed in the following variants: role, creative, applied, search. Mono-projects and intersubject work are possible on the subject-matter area.
Work on project coordination activitiesactions are flexible, rigid, hidden. At the same time, children from different schools in the same city, in different regions and countries can work on one problem. The stages of the project activity assume an indication of the timing of their implementation. This is especially true for long-term work, designed for several years.
In the proposed sample, all stages of the project activity are indicated. Let's look at it in the most detail and split it into paragraphs.
Since time immemorial, man has learned to evaporatesalt from sea water. In this way, a third of humanity's entire need for this necessary product was met. In the White Sea, the extraction of salt began a long time ago. The ancient "salt farmers" had only the possibilities of nature. Salt was evaporated from the water under the influence of the sun, because 4-5 millennia ago the climate was warmer than the modern. In those days, salt was a profitable industry, and salt - a valuable product of trade and exchange. But the sale was not always carried out honestly, they mixed the "kardehu" (stones). For this Ivan the Terrible in 1546 instructed to fine 2 rubles for 65 poods of salt! The revival of the Pomor tradition of production of salt from sea water is an aspect in the formation of citizenship and patriotism of the modern generation.
Objective of the project: the revival of Pomorian methods of cooking salt, the formation of a sense of patriotism in the younger generation.
Tasks of the project:
Novelty: at the moment in the Arkhangelsk region such a proposal does not exist.
Object of study: salt.
Subject of study: ancient ways of obtaining table salt.
For a long time people have learned to receive salt fromsalt water. We built saltworks near the salt springs. On the shore of the White Sea there were only three saltworks, and along the Onega River, similar structures were located near the villages of Chekuevo, Glotovo. On the territory of the Turchasov mill there were 3 saltworks: in Nermush, Kleshchevo, Usolye. Their founders were rich merchants and Kozhozersky monastery. One bag of salt was worth like a cow. At the same time the cost of the house at that time was two cows. Birch bark products were used to store the salt. The last time salt was brewed in the North in 1950. Currently, only traces of the ancient salt paintings have been preserved.
Useful and hazardous properties of salt:
Salt has weak antiseptic properties. 10-15% of its solution prevents the development of putrefactive bacteria. This became the reason for its wide application as a preservative. The lethal dose of salt is 3 grams per kilogram of body weight.
What causes salt?
According to the World Health Organization,systematic intake of excess salt leads to a sharp increase in blood pressure, there are diseases of the kidney and heart, stomach cancer, osteoporosis. Cooking salt can cause eye diseases and eyelid edema, as it delays water in the body.
Useful properties of salt:
During the Great Patriotic War, surgeons,working in the field hospitals, put cotton cloth wounded on wide ragged wounds, moistened in a solution of salt. Thus, they saved them from gangrene: after 3-4 days the wounds became clean. An excellent tonic effect on the body is provided by contrasting dousing with salt water.
Salt is a commodity that is always in demand. In Russia there are producers of salt, but this does not reduce the interest in this product. We propose to organize a master class on evaporating salt from sea water, having solved at once two important and actual tasks for our region: the revival of the Pomor tradition and attraction of tourists to the region (increasing the attractiveness of the region). Salt will be available to all participants of the master class, in addition, they will get acquainted with the history of the Pomor region of the north, its customs and traditions. In the Arkhangelsk region at the present time there is no production of salt. It is important that the cost of the master classes will be affordable. In this case, you can later arrange the release of individually packaged salt. Master classes will be held for schoolchildren, tourists. The project does not provide for industrial salt production, does not require serious equipment, recruitment of labor.
Main participants of the project: private individuals.
The main obstacles (constraints to the development of production and features in the implementation of the project):
Revival of the Pomor tradition of cooking saltcan be considered as a rather interesting idea for tourists. This business does not require significant capital investment. Of course, it will be necessary to invest money in the first stage, that is, when creating old mechanisms for evaporation of salt, but the initial investment in this production is not very significant.
The saltworks will be located on the landThe site belongs to the Onega museum of local lore. In the direction of the coast (to the north), an insignificant decrease in the relief is observed. The saltworks will be equipped with two separate entrances, an entrance from the common road. To access it people with disabilities, there is a ramp at the entrance. All green plantations, grassy cuts during construction are not violated.
Conclusions on the work and prospects of the project implementation:
This project is quite feasible andpromising. When conducting successful tests, it will be possible to count on the influx of a significant number of tourists, that is, to increase the investment attractiveness of the Onega district. As guides you can attract schoolchildren, stimulating them with insignificant cash payments (vouchers, discount tickets to the theater, cinema).
We managed to get acquainted with Pomor traditionto find historical data, to make sketches of the future saltworks on them. The next stages of the project activity will be related to the calculation of the costs of construction and testing. You can also think about creating a souvenir salt shop on the basis of the museum of local lore.
The above version of the project has a descriptive character. It clearly shows the preparatory stage. However, it is described in the most detail.
Project activities help to shape theschoolchildren independence, creative thinking, interest in the subjects studied. Such a training option will not only stimulate development, but will also be useful in the future.</ p>