Description of the Azov Sea: area, depth and fauna

The Sea of ​​Azov is a semi-enclosed shelfpond, and he belongs to the system of the Mediterranean Sea of ​​the Atlantic Ocean. In general, this natural pond is a zone of mixing of the Black Sea and river waters, therefore some researchers consider it as a shallow (shallow) Black Sea or a spacious, vast estuary of the river.

From this article you can learn about the area of ​​the Sea of ​​Azov, its location, the origin of the name and many others. other

The Sea of ​​Azov: general information

This pond is the northeast basin of the Black Sea. Connects them between the Kerch Strait.

Sea of ​​Azov

According to its morphological features, Azov belongs to the flat types and is a shallow water body with not very high slopes of the coast.

There is a rather small area and depthAzov Sea (the latter is not more than 14 meters, and its depth is only about 8 meters average). Moreover, more than 1/2 part of the territory has a depth of up to 5 meters. And this is the main feature.

Without taking into account the Taganrog Gulf and Sivash, the Azov Sea has an elliptical shape stretched to the south-west from the northeast. In the World Ocean this is the smallest natural body of water.

Two great rivers flow into it - the Kuban and the Don - and a multitude (more than 20) of the smaller ones, which mostly drain from its northern shore.

Parameters of the Sea of ​​Azov: area

The basin of the Azov Sea has an area of ​​about 570 thousand square meters. km. Its length is the largest 343 km, and the widest part is 231 km. 2,686 kilometers is the length of the entire coastal line.

Area of ​​the Azov Sea

Area of ​​the Sea of ​​Azov in the square. km. is about 37600 (this does not include the area of ​​islands and braids, occupying 107.9 square kilometers). The average volume of all water is 256 km3. As noted above, approximately 43% of the territory falls on sections of depths from 5 to 10 meters.

origin of name

Its modern, relatively new name was given to the sea several centuries ago from the name of the Turkish city of Azov. The latter, in turn, occurs on behalf of the local feudal lord (Azak or Azum).

But even earlier the ancient Greeks called it "Meotislimne ", which means" Lake Meot "(people who lived on the shores). The Romans called it ironically - "Palus Meotis", which means "swamp of Meot". And this is not surprising for the Azov Sea. The area, and especially its depth, is not very large.

Area and depth of the Azov Sea

The Arabs called the "Baral-Azov" and "Nitshlah", and the Turks - "Bahr-Assak" (Sea Dark-blue) and "Baryal-Assak". There were many more names in antiquity, everything can not be counted.

Azov in Rus became famous in the 1st century AD. e., and the name was given to him - the Blue Sea. After the formation of the Tmutarakan principality, he was called Russian. Then the sea was renamed many times (Mayutis, Salakar, Samakush, etc.). In the 13th century the sea was approved with the name Saksinsky Sea. The conquerors of the Tatar-Mongolian gave him the name "Chabak-dengiz" (bream or chabak) and "Balyk-dengiz" (in translation - "fish sea"). As a result of the transformation of the last name (tzabaq - dzybah - zazak - azak - azov), today's name arose (doubtful version). All assumptions about the origin can not be described here.

Kinds of animals, volumes of water, area: comparison of the Sea of ​​Azov with other seas

The Aral Sea is almost 2 times larger than the Azov area, and the Black Sea is almost 11 times larger, and, correspondingly, it is 1678 times larger in volume than in the water.

And yet two European states could freely be accommodated in this area, for example Luxembourg and Belgium.

It is interesting to compare the number of speciesMediterranean plants and animals in different seas, viewing from west to east. In the Mediterranean - more than 6000 species of different organisms, in the Black - 1500, in the Azov - about 200, in the Caspian - about 28, and in the Aralsky there are only 2 species of organisms. This explains the fact that all of them once in the distant past gradually separated from the Mediterranean Sea.

Animal world

The water expanses of the Azov Sea, the area of ​​the coastline contain a huge number of various species of animals.

On the banks of a lot of diverse waterfowlpoultry: ducks, geese, steppe waders, geese, chibis, swan swans, black-headed gulls and many others. There are 114 species (along with subspecies) of fish in the sea and in the estuaries of the rivers flowing into it, as well as on the estuaries. Still this pond is called the Sea of ​​mollusks.

And on the biological productivity, it takes the 1 st place in the world.

The relief of underwater

The relief of the seabed is simple. The depths here mostly increase gradually as they move away from the coast, and, naturally, the deepest places are in the center. Almost flat bottom in Azov.

The entire territory of the Sea of ​​Azov arose due to large bays. There are no large islands on it. There are small shoals (Turtle Island, Biryuchiy Island and others).

Climate

The area of ​​almost the whole surface of the water is already inApril-May is quickly warming up. From June to September, the average water temperature is more than 20 ° C, and in July-August it reaches 30 ° C. And in Sivash (for comparison) the water warms up to 42 degrees.

Area of ​​comparison of the Sea of ​​Azov with other seas

The bathing season lasts 124 days. In this favorable period, there is only a relatively few days here a comparatively low or very high temperature of water and air.

Due to the small size of the Sea of ​​Azov (area, depth, volume), its influence on the climate of the land surrounding it is rather weak and only noticeable only in a narrow strip (coastal).

Water here quickly heats up in the summer and the samecooled in winter. Completely the sea freezes only in the harshest winters. And throughout the whole winter, ice forms and thaws several times, because in these places there are often thaws.

Area of ​​the Sea of ​​Azov in the square. km.

In conclusion about some curious facts

There are several very interesting and curious facts from the history.

1. The sea for many millions of years was part of a huge ocean, called the geologists Tethys. Its endless expanse stretched from America Central through the Atlantic Ocean, part of Europe, the Black, Mediterranean, Caspian and Aral Seas and further east through India to the Pacific Ocean itself.

2. Russian prince Gleb in 1068 measured the distance from Kerch to Taman on the ice. The inscription on the Tmutarakan stone indicates that the distance from Korchev to Tmutarakan (the ancient name of Kerch and Tamani respectively) was about 20 km. It turns out that for 939 years the distance has increased by 3 km.

3. Sea water contains little salt (another feature). In this regard, the water easily freezes. Therefore, the sea is non-navigable from the end of the year (December) to the middle of April.

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