Gram-positive bacteria

Gram positive bacteria got its namein the distant 1884, when the Danish scientist G. Gram proposed his method of investigation. This method is based on the staining of the bacterial cell wall with special dyes, which allow to reveal the biochemical properties of cell membranes. The composition of the solution, which produces color, includes an aniline dye and an iodine solution to fix the color. Gram-positive bacteria after washing were strongly stained, and gram-negative bacteria - discolored.

Gram-positive bacteria includelactobacilli bacteria, micrococcus bacteria, bacillobacteria and clostridiobacteria. The structure of the bacteria of each group is distinguished by the possibility or impossibility of sporulation, but in general they are typical - they have a membrane, ribosomes and nucleotide.

Clostridia, as a rule, are anaerobes andmore often have the form of rods, but sometimes cocci. During the formation of bacterial spores, Clostridium has the form of a lemon. Clostridia have the ability to cause fermentation in certain proteins, polysaccharides, pyrines and amino acids. For example, in the process of fermentation with clostridium, acetone and some other alcohols are obtained. These bacteria can live in the soil, in the pond, in the digestive tract of living beings. For a person, Clostridium tetany (the causative agent of tetanus) and Clostridium septicum (the causative agent of gas gangrene) is dangerous. A bacterium such as Clostridium botulinum, produces a potent poison that leads to an immediate fatal outcome.

Bacillobacteria most often have a rod-shapedform, they are aerobes, are capable of forming spores. Among this subspecies, the hay bacillus is most known, which actively participates in the process of decomposition of organic substances. An anthrax stick is dangerous for a person. Due to their natural properties, bacillobacteria are used to produce antibiotics.

Lactobacilli are gram-positive bacteria,which do not form spores and have the shape of rods. The value of these bacteria lies in their ability to ferment carbohydrates and obtain lactic acid as a result. Lactobacillus can be found in drinks, dairy products, sauerkraut, pickles. They are formed during ensiling as a result of the decomposition of plant and animal residues.

Micrococci combine both aerobic andAnaerobic microorganisms that do not form endospores. Metabolism is often aimed at maintaining respiratory function. These cocci are involved in the decomposition of food, animals and plant debris. The most famous representative of micrococci is staphylococcus aureus. If it falls on products that are in heat, then actively begins to release an enterotoxin, dangerous to humans.

Apart from mycoplasma, some of thewhich are still generally attributed to gram-positive bacteria. Mycoplasmas are the smallest pre-nuclear, besides they do not contain a shell, they do not form a dispute. Most of them do not harm, but some can be pathogens, for example, in humans, causing infection of joint bags, genitourinary organs, mucous membranes and respiratory tract. When staining using the Gramm method, not all of them can hold the color stably.

It is quite difficult for a person to "get along" withgram positive bacteria. Studies show that about half of all infections in the human body are caused by representatives of this group. With proper storage of products and observance of personal hygiene rules, the possibility of a non-conflict neighborhood is rather high. But when penetrating the body, some gram-positive bacteria can provoke a serious conflict. In this case, special groups of antibiotics come to the aid, which counteract the bacteria.

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