The history of the Rostov region from ancient settlements to our times. History of the Don Cossacks

The territory where cities are located todayand the village of the Rostov region, in ancient times bore different names. The Greeks called it Scythia, the Romans by Scythia, and the Dnieper Russians by Khazaria. In the annals dating from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, it is referred to as the Wild Field. And it was only in the time of Ivan the Terrible that the historic name that had come down to us appeared in everyday life, denoting the possessions of Cossacks ─ Don.

History of the Rostov Region

Early inhabitants of the Don coast

Referring to such an extensive issue as historyRostov region, it is necessary to begin with the settlements of the Stone Age, traces of which are found in many places throughout the Don. The age of the earliest finds is estimated at 2 million years. It was during this period, in their opinion, that the first sites of ancient people appeared on the banks of the river.

Findings of artifacts belonging to a latertime - the period of the so-called Acheulian culture, which was spread about 100-150 thousand years ago, indicate that the inhabitants of this region obtained their livelihood exclusively by hunting, fishing and gathering.

Hunters of the Paleolithic Age

History of the Rostov region in the middlePaleolithic (40-50 thousand years BC), although characterized by a significant improvement in the instruments of labor, nevertheless it also indicates that the main source of existence of the inhabitants of that era was hunting. Excavations show that buffalo, giant deer, horses, bears, and even lions, which were then on the banks of the Don, became prey to prey.

In those ancient times, residents of the Don region weresedentary lifestyle and settled generic groups, which greatly simplified the process of hunting. They became nomads much later, only 16-18 thousand years ago, due to changes in climatic conditions that caused the majority of large animals to move north. This period includes the earliest of the found magical figurines of animals and people, indicating the birth of early primitive forms of religion.

History of the Don Cossacks

The beginning of a new era

It is interesting to note that at the beginning of our era,The territory of the present Rostov region was built two cities - Tanais and Kremnov, which were Greek colonies. In addition, during the same period, significant lands along the banks of the Don belonged to the ancient Bosporus kingdom, whose inhabitants, even in the first century AD, had a notion of Christianity through communication with the followers of the Gospel teaching sent to their land from Rome. They came as state criminals, but this did not prevent them from preaching and missionary activities among the local population.

In later periods, the territories adjacent to theDon, were inhabited by Scythians, Cimmerians, Alans, Sauromats and a number of other peoples. All of them left traces of their stay, which sometimes testify to a very high level of development of culture and crafts. However, under the onslaught of numerous nomadic peoples moving from East to West at the beginning of our era, ancient cities fell, and the once flourishing edge turned into a desert for several centuries.

From the arrival of the Avar tribes to the Turkish invasion

History of the Rostov region of the Middle Agesbegins in the IV century, after the region, which had been empty for several centuries, was inhabited first by the Avars, and then by the Khazars, who superseded them and built the Sarkel fortress. And further, throughout the Middle Ages, the banks of the Don became an arena of constant battles between nomadic tribes, disputing among themselves this fertile land. The Khazars were superseded by the Russian squads, who also failed to retain the conquered territories, and the Pechenegs who yielded to them, and those, in their turn, expelled the Polovtsians.

This continued until the XIII century, while the Don landwas not under the rule of the Golden Horde, which, in turn, could not withstand the more powerful and merciless invader Tamerlane, who defeated her southwestern part. In another century, as a result of the extreme weakening of the Golden Horde, a significant part of the coast of the Sea of ​​Azov, the Rostov Region, and the Northern Black Sea coast was captured by the Ottoman Empire. The city of Azak, built by the Tatars, they renamed Azov and turned into an impregnable fortress, the struggle for which stretched for several centuries.

Governor of the Rostov region

Education of the Don Cossacks

In the XV century to prevent furtherthe advancement of the Turks deep into the Russian state, on the Wild Field, guard fortresses and borderlands are being built. Then there are the first settlements of free people who fled from the tyranny of the authorities. It is with them that the history of the Don Cossacks begins. A great role in it was played by the Orthodox tycoon of Polish descent Dmitry Ivanovich Vishnevitsky, who built a number of fortresses for his money, one of which, Cherkassk, became the capital of the Don Cossacks.

A century later, three smallcities built by the Cossacks and received the status of administrative centers ─ Manych, Mityakin and Razdory. Since the power of the Moscow princes did not spread to these lands, a disorganized Cossack group, which at first appeared spontaneously arisen, soon formed a military and political organization, called the Don Army.

It was built on the principles of genuinedemocracy and strict discipline. All posts were elected, and the order of the ataman became law for all. The highest authority was the Circle ─ general council, which met regularly in Cherkassy, ​​the capital of the Cossack state.

Conflicts of the Cossacks with the Government of Russia

Going under the scepter of the Moscow kings, the Cossacks,being a closed military service, enjoyed much greater freedom than other Russians. They were exempted from paying taxes, were freed from all sorts of duties and, contrary to the decrees of Peter I, were given the right to wear clothes of the old breed.

The Don Cossack Host

After in the XVII-XVIII century, once freethe lands began to lose autonomy and belong to the Russian Empire, the Don Cossack Host lost most of its privileges, and often came into conflict with the government. The most striking episodes of this struggle were the participation of Cossacks in a number of peasant uprisings and wars that broke out under the leadership of Stepan Razin, Emelian Pugachev and Kondraty Bulavin.

The emergence of the two main centers of the Don Cossacks

No matter how the Cossacks opposed this, but in timethey were included in the armed forces of the Russian Empire as an irregular army and took part in all subsequent wars. In 1749, by the decree of Empress Catherine II on the right bank of the Don, near the place where the Temernik River flows into it, a customs post was built, and a fortress later named after St. Dimitry of Rostov. It gave rise to a city that was formed from the surrounding suburbs and was named Rostov-on-Don.

At the beginning of the next century, the capital of DonskoiCossack troops moved to a new city, founded at the initiative of Ataman Matvey Platov, Novocherkassk. Very indicative is the statistics of those years, indicating an unusually rapid increase in the population of the region. According to available data, at the turn of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the number of Cossacks did not exceed 225,000, whereas in half a century it increased more than threefold and reached 775,000.

Life of the Don region in the XIX century

In the XIX century the main military-administrativethe center of the Don Cossacks became Novocherkassk, while the second largest city of Rostov-on-Don acquired the features of a large commercial and industrial center. By the decree of Nicholas I from 1835 the whole territory of the region was divided into 7 districts: the 1st Don, the 2nd Don, Cherkassy, ​​Miusskiy, Donetsk, Khopyorsk and Ust-Medvedets. In January 1870, a decree of the Government Senate was promulgated, on the basis of which the new name of the province came into use-the Region of the Don Army, which survived until 1918.

Rostov Region Rostov on Don

Since the middle of the XIX century as a result of a sharp increaseof the population, which was mentioned above, began to appear settlements of a new type - farms, consisting of one, less often several households with a separate household. By the end of the century, their number had reached 1820 units. The main agricultural crop, farmed by farmers, as well as by residents of Cossack villages, including a large number of households, was wheat, supplied both to the domestic and foreign markets.

Civil war and subsequent years

The history of the Don Cossacks in the XX century is fulltruly dramatic pages. Soon after the October coup, the power on the banks of the Don was seized by the Bolsheviks and proclaimed the creation of the Don Soviet Republic. However, it lasted less than a year and, after its fall in September 1918, gave way to a new independent state, the All-Great Don Military, formed on the basis of the ruling of the Military Circle.

Civil war on the Don was particularly difficultand bloody character, since this region became one of the centers of the White Movement, and it was here, in many ways, the fate of the future Russia was decided. After the defeat of the White Guards, and the establishment of Soviet power, the Great Don Army ceased to exist, and the region was renamed the Don Region, the center of which was the city of Rostov-on-Don.

During this period, the Cossacks collapsedadversity. Most of them became victims of repression conducted by the new government. The same of them who had to go through the campaigns of dekulakization and raznakachivaniyu, were forever torn from their habitual way of life and doomed to a beggarly existence.

The Civil War on the Don

The battle for the "gates of the Caucasus"

A lot of interesting facts contain a storyRostov region of the Great Patriotic War. It is known that, in drawing up his notorious "Barbarossa" plan, Hitler paid special attention to military operations in the southern regions of the Soviet Union.

An essential role was assigned to him and to takingRostov-on-Don, because it was a kind of gateway to the Caucasus. The head of the Third Reich was so confident in the success of the planned operation that, even before the outbreak of hostilities, ordered the coins "For the Taking of Rostov" to be minted from bronze. To fulfill the Führer's order, 13 divisions were thrown, among which was the Italian Expeditionary Force.

Between October 1941 and August 1943Rostov Region, Rostov-on-Don, as well as the entire adjacent territory became the scene of fierce battles. For the courage and selflessness shown during the military operations of those years, 11 Soviet military units and formations received the title of "Donskikh". These included infantry, artillery, tank and air units.

Attempts to revive the Cossacks

In the years that followed the collapse of the USSR,the process of the revival of the Don Cossacks took shape, in connection with which a whole number of public organizations appeared that declared the solution of this problem their activity goal. However, there is no doubt that some of them used Cossack symbolism in isolation from the real continuity, the reasons for which still need to be understood by historians.

Parking of ancient people

The current structure of the Rostov region and its leaders

At present, according to the law onadministrative and territorial division of the Rostov region, it includes 12 urban districts and 43 district municipalities. In addition, it has 18 urban settlements and 380 rural settlements. The city of Rostov-on-Don itself includes 8 districts: Sovetsky, Pervomaisky, Leninsky, Zheleznodorozhny, Proletarskiy, Oktyabrsky, Kirovsky and Voroshilovsky.

After in 1991 in the Russian Federationwas introduced by the governor's rule, the first governor of the Rostov region has become a prominent politician of the Soviet and post-Soviet period Chub Vladimir Fedorovich. He was in office until June 2010. Upon completion of his term of office, this post was taken up by Vasily Golubev, who is the governor of the Rostov region to the present day.

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