"Vancomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics. It is able to exert a bactericidal effect, deforms the synthesis of cell walls and RNA of bacteria, and the permeability of the cytoplasm membrane. It shows activity against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus spp. (including strains that produce penicillinase as well as methicillin-resistant strains), Enterococcus spp., Listeria spp., Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces spp., Corynebacterium spp, Clostridium spp. (including Clostridium difficile). With the antibiotics of other groups, there was no evidence of cross-resistance.
In the "Vancomycin" from the group of antibiotics glycopeptides actually contain vancomycin, present here in the hydrochloride form, as well as auxiliary substances.
After taking "Vancomycin" orally, heabsorbed in a very small amount. A slight increase in the absorption of the drug is observed with inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. In this case, after consuming the drug in an amount of 500 milligrams every six hours in the blood plasma, the active substance reaches a maximum concentration ranging from 2.4 to 3 mg / L.
If you enter the same amount intravenously, thenin patients with normal functioning of the kidney the highest content is about 7.3 mg / l. With the intravenous introduction of "Vancomycin" in a volume of 1000 milligrams, its concentration in the blood plasma will double. Immediately after infusion, this indicator will range from 20 to 50 mg / L, and after twelve hours - from 5 to 10. After intravenous injection of 500 milligrams for an hour, the average plasma concentration at the end of the infusion is approximately 33 mg / l, after an hour - 7.3 mg / l, after four hours this figure is 5.7 mg / l.
If you enter the instructions "Vancomycin" from the groupantibiotics of glycopeptides many times, its content will be similar to a single application. The distribution volume varies between 0.2 and 1.25 l / kg. If we talk about children, including newborns, this indicator is slightly lower in comparison with adults: 0.53-0.82.
As a result of ultrafiltration, it can be seen thatthe content of "Vancomycin" in serum in blood in an amount of 10 to 100 mg / l, it binds to plasma proteins by 30-55%. When administered intravenously, the active substance is found in various tissues of the body (kidneys, vascular walls, liver, abscess walls, heart, atrial atrial tissue, lungs), in fluids (pleural, ascitic, pericardial, synovial, peritoneal), in urine (in inhibitory increased sensitivity of microorganisms concentration).
It is noted that "Vancomycin" from the group of antibioticsglycopeptides slowly penetrates into the fluid of the spinal cord, but with the inflammation of its membranes the proportionately increasing rate of passage of the drug through the blood-brain barrier is fixed.
The antibiotic penetrates the placental barrier and, accordingly, enters the breast milk.
Means "Vancomycin" (photo) from the groupantibiotics glycopeptides almost not metabolized. If the functioning of the kidneys is normal, then the average half-life of plasma from the plasma varies from 4 to 6 hours. Approximately 75 percent of the dose in the first 24 hours is excreted by the kidneys through glomerular filtration. But the excretion of bile is observed in a small amount. The same is true for hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
The average plasma clearance is approximately 0.058l / kg / h, kidney clearance - 0.048. After permanent renal clearance, "Vancomycin" is excreted to 70 - 80 percent. If there are violations of the kidneys, this process slows down. During anuria, the mean half-life is 7.5 days. Because of glomerular filtration, slowed down for natural reasons in elderly patients, in general, systemic and renal clearance of the drug "Vancomycin" may decrease.
As evidence for the use of Vancomycinfrom the group of antibiotics glycopeptides are infectious and inflammatory diseases characterized by severe course and caused by agents susceptible to the active substance of the drug (with intolerance or inefficiency of treatment with other antibiotics, which also include cephalosporins or penicillins):
"Vankomycin" has the following forms:
Other dosage forms, including also suspensions or tablets, do not exist.
This is confirmed by the instruction on the application to "Vankomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics.
The drug is administered intravenously viadroppers. For adults, the dosage is 500 milligrams, applied every six hours, or 1 gram every 12 hours. To avoid collapoid reactions, the infusion should last at least 60 minutes. The dose for children is 40 milligrams per kilogram per day, each administered for an hour. In patients with impaired renal function of excretion, it, respectively, decreases based on the QC values.
Also, depending on the etiology of the disease,"Vancomycin" is allowed to be consumed inside. The daily norm for adults varies from 500 milligrams to 2 grams in three to four receptions, the dose for children is 40 milligrams per kilogram at the same number of receptions. When administered intravenously, adult patients are allowed a maximum of 3 to 4 grams.
Side effects from the use of "Vancomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics are:
Among the contraindications to the use of "Vancomycin" are:
What is the use of "Vancomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics by pregnant women and nursing mothers?
In connection with the fact that oto- andnephrotoxicity, it is forbidden to use the product in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the second and third trimester, "Vanzomycin" can be used only if there are vital indications. If the need arises, breastfeeding should be completed.
If you use a drug for newborns, you need to carefully monitor the concentration of "Vancomycin" in the blood plasma. The same applies to elderly patients.
"Vancomycin" must be used carefullyat violations of kidneys of mild and moderate degree, hearing defects (including in history). In the therapeutic period, patients with kidney disease and / or defects in the eighth pair of cranial nerves require monitoring of renal function and hearing. Intramuscular injection of the drug is prohibited because of a high risk of tissue necrosis.
Using "Vancomycin" along with some drugs can cause a number of negative reactions:
When treating preterm infants, it is necessary to monitor the concentration of the drug in the blood serum. During the treatment period, the doctor prescribes renal diagnostics and hearing tests.
In patients' reviews, it is said that thisthe drug is an antibiotic of strong effect, as a result of which it can be used only under strict medical supervision. In addition, many people note the development of serious side effects, for example, difficulty breathing, lowering of pressure, pain in the ears and redness of the skin.
Analogues of "Vancomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics should be selected by a doctor.
Structural analogues for the active substance can be identified as follows:
We provided information about the drug "Vancomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics. But remember that the appointment of any medicine should be done by a specialist! Be healthy!</ p>