"Vancomycin": a group of antibiotics, instructions and reviews

"Vancomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics. It is able to exert a bactericidal effect, deforms the synthesis of cell walls and RNA of bacteria, and the permeability of the cytoplasm membrane. It shows activity against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus spp. (including strains that produce penicillinase as well as methicillin-resistant strains), Enterococcus spp., Listeria spp., Streptococcus spp., Actinomyces spp., Corynebacterium spp, Clostridium spp. (including Clostridium difficile). With the antibiotics of other groups, there was no evidence of cross-resistance.

vancomycin antibiotics group

Composition

In the "Vancomycin" from the group of antibiotics glycopeptides actually contain vancomycin, present here in the hydrochloride form, as well as auxiliary substances.

Influence from pharmacokinetics

After taking "Vancomycin" orally, heabsorbed in a very small amount. A slight increase in the absorption of the drug is observed with inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. In this case, after consuming the drug in an amount of 500 milligrams every six hours in the blood plasma, the active substance reaches a maximum concentration ranging from 2.4 to 3 mg / L.

If you enter the same amount intravenously, thenin patients with normal functioning of the kidney the highest content is about 7.3 mg / l. With the intravenous introduction of "Vancomycin" in a volume of 1000 milligrams, its concentration in the blood plasma will double. Immediately after infusion, this indicator will range from 20 to 50 mg / L, and after twelve hours - from 5 to 10. After intravenous injection of 500 milligrams for an hour, the average plasma concentration at the end of the infusion is approximately 33 mg / l, after an hour - 7.3 mg / l, after four hours this figure is 5.7 mg / l.

If you enter the instructions "Vancomycin" from the groupantibiotics of glycopeptides many times, its content will be similar to a single application. The distribution volume varies between 0.2 and 1.25 l / kg. If we talk about children, including newborns, this indicator is slightly lower in comparison with adults: 0.53-0.82.

As a result of ultrafiltration, it can be seen thatthe content of "Vancomycin" in serum in blood in an amount of 10 to 100 mg / l, it binds to plasma proteins by 30-55%. When administered intravenously, the active substance is found in various tissues of the body (kidneys, vascular walls, liver, abscess walls, heart, atrial atrial tissue, lungs), in fluids (pleural, ascitic, pericardial, synovial, peritoneal), in urine (in inhibitory increased sensitivity of microorganisms concentration).

It is noted that "Vancomycin" from the group of antibioticsglycopeptides slowly penetrates into the fluid of the spinal cord, but with the inflammation of its membranes the proportionately increasing rate of passage of the drug through the blood-brain barrier is fixed.

The antibiotic penetrates the placental barrier and, accordingly, enters the breast milk.

vancomycin antibiotics group reviews

Means "Vancomycin" (photo) from the groupantibiotics glycopeptides almost not metabolized. If the functioning of the kidneys is normal, then the average half-life of plasma from the plasma varies from 4 to 6 hours. Approximately 75 percent of the dose in the first 24 hours is excreted by the kidneys through glomerular filtration. But the excretion of bile is observed in a small amount. The same is true for hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

The average plasma clearance is approximately 0.058l / kg / h, kidney clearance - 0.048. After permanent renal clearance, "Vancomycin" is excreted to 70 - 80 percent. If there are violations of the kidneys, this process slows down. During anuria, the mean half-life is 7.5 days. Because of glomerular filtration, slowed down for natural reasons in elderly patients, in general, systemic and renal clearance of the drug "Vancomycin" may decrease.

Indications

As evidence for the use of Vancomycinfrom the group of antibiotics glycopeptides are infectious and inflammatory diseases characterized by severe course and caused by agents susceptible to the active substance of the drug (with intolerance or inefficiency of treatment with other antibiotics, which also include cephalosporins or penicillins):

  • endocarditis (as a monotherapy or a part of antibiotic therapy of a combined type);
  • sepsis;
  • abscess of the lungs;
  • skin infections;
  • pneumonia;
  • infections of soft tissues;
  • pseudomembranous colitis, triggered by Clostridium difficile;
  • meningitis.

vancomycin antibiotics group

Basic Forms of Release

"Vankomycin" has the following forms:

  • a powder from which a solution for infusions is prepared (i.e., injections in the form of ampoules) in an amount of 500 milligrams and 1 gram;
  • lyophilizate for making a solution in the same volume.

Other dosage forms, including also suspensions or tablets, do not exist.

This is confirmed by the instruction on the application to "Vankomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics.

Dosage

The drug is administered intravenously viadroppers. For adults, the dosage is 500 milligrams, applied every six hours, or 1 gram every 12 hours. To avoid collapoid reactions, the infusion should last at least 60 minutes. The dose for children is 40 milligrams per kilogram per day, each administered for an hour. In patients with impaired renal function of excretion, it, respectively, decreases based on the QC values.

Also, depending on the etiology of the disease,"Vancomycin" is allowed to be consumed inside. The daily norm for adults varies from 500 milligrams to 2 grams in three to four receptions, the dose for children is 40 milligrams per kilogram at the same number of receptions. When administered intravenously, adult patients are allowed a maximum of 3 to 4 grams.

Side effect

Side effects from the use of "Vancomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics are:

  • heart failure;
  • decreased blood pressure;
  • tides;
  • shock (these symptoms are mainly due to the rapid infusion of the drug);

vancomycin antibiotics group

  • eosinophilia;
  • neutropenia;
  • nausea;
  • agranulocytosis;
  • thrombocytopenia;
  • deformation of functional kidney tests;
  • interstitial nephritis;
  • impaired renal function;
  • tinnitus;
  • vertigo;
  • exfoliative dermatitis;
  • itching dermatosis;
  • ototoxic effects;
  • Stevens-Johnson syndrome;
  • blistering benign dermatosis;
  • vasculitis;
  • hives;
  • rash;
  • epidermal necrolysis of a toxic nature;

vancomycin antibiotics group

  • reactions of anaphylactoid type;
  • drug fever;
  • chills;
  • tissue necrosis in those places where the injection was administered, and the pain in these areas;
  • thrombophlebitis;
  • erythema;
  • the appearance of red neck syndrome, which is due to the release of histamine;
  • skin rash;
  • redness of the neck, face, hands and upper body;
  • increased heart rate;
  • vomiting;
  • nausea;
  • temperature increase;
  • chills;
  • fainting.

Contraindications

vancomycin antibiotics group photo

Among the contraindications to the use of "Vancomycin" are:

  • obvious violations of renal function;
  • neuritis of the auditory nerve;
  • the first trimester of pregnancy;
  • lactation period;
  • increased sensitivity of the patient to vancomycin - the active substance of the drug.

What is the use of "Vancomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics by pregnant women and nursing mothers?

In connection with the fact that oto- andnephrotoxicity, it is forbidden to use the product in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the second and third trimester, "Vanzomycin" can be used only if there are vital indications. If the need arises, breastfeeding should be completed.

Treatment of children and the elderly

If you use a drug for newborns, you need to carefully monitor the concentration of "Vancomycin" in the blood plasma. The same applies to elderly patients.

note

"Vancomycin" must be used carefullyat violations of kidneys of mild and moderate degree, hearing defects (including in history). In the therapeutic period, patients with kidney disease and / or defects in the eighth pair of cranial nerves require monitoring of renal function and hearing. Intramuscular injection of the drug is prohibited because of a high risk of tissue necrosis.

Drug Interactions

Using "Vancomycin" along with some drugs can cause a number of negative reactions:

  • when combined with cisplatin, polymyxins, amphotericin and diuretics, kidneys and hearing organs are at risk;
  • with simultaneous use with phenobarbital, a group of corticosteroids and heparin;
  • at reception with anesthetics at children the cutaneous erythema with expansion of capillaries in the field of the face is found out; in adults, there may be heart rhythm and blockade defects;
  • colestyramine decreases effectiveness.
  • It is necessary to avoid compounding the drug with antibiotics related to the beta-lactam type.

vancomycin group of antibiotic analogs

When treating preterm infants, it is necessary to monitor the concentration of the drug in the blood serum. During the treatment period, the doctor prescribes renal diagnostics and hearing tests.

Reviews about "Vankomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics

In patients' reviews, it is said that thisthe drug is an antibiotic of strong effect, as a result of which it can be used only under strict medical supervision. In addition, many people note the development of serious side effects, for example, difficulty breathing, lowering of pressure, pain in the ears and redness of the skin.

Analogues of "Vancomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics should be selected by a doctor.

Analogues

Structural analogues for the active substance can be identified as follows:

  • "Vankoled";
  • "Vankomabol";
  • "Vancomycin J";
  • "Vancomycin Teva";
  • "Vancomycin hydrochloride";
  • "Vankorus";
  • "Vancocin";
  • Vanmixan;
  • "Vero Vancomycin";
  • Edicine.

We provided information about the drug "Vancomycin" from the group of glycopeptide antibiotics. But remember that the appointment of any medicine should be done by a specialist! Be healthy!

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