Fracture is ... Bone fractures: types, symptoms, diagnosis and first aid

The life of modern man is very differentfrom the one that was peculiar, say, to the inhabitants of the Middle Ages. However, such phenomena as injuries, which include bruises, sprains and fractures, are still happening. This article is devoted to fractures of bones. In it we will try to briefly consider the reasons for their appearance, as well as the main types.

Determination of bone fracture in medicine

To begin with it is necessary to understand with that, fractures -what's this? What is included in the concept of "fracture" in specialists? In simple terms, fractures can include any trauma, which is characterized by the destruction of some bone of the human skeleton. In medicine, the term sounds like this: fracture is the complete or partial destruction of bone as a single, monolithic fragment of the body, a violation of its integrity under conditions when the traumatic effect exceeds its strength.

fracture is

The main reasons why a bone can break, experts say:

  1. Injuries, during which there is a strong squeezing on the entire surface of the bone or a pinpoint impact on it of a high degree of intensity.
  2. Stress fractures, which are a systematic microtraumatism of a particular joint or bone.
  3. Diseases that cause a decrease in the strength of the entire skeleton or individual bones in it.

According to statistics, the most frequent fractures of limbs: arms and legs. On the second place there are fractures of edges. The fractures of the bones of the skull and vertebral column are most rarely recorded.

Types of fractures

So, we move on to another, no less importantThe issue that concerns such a phenomenon as a fracture. This type of injury, depending on the causes that caused them, is divided into several types. First, fractures can be acquired and congenital, traumatic and pathological. Traumatic fractures most often occur as a result of falls, bumps and other mechanical effects on the skeleton. Pathological fractures can manifest even in a state of complete rest in diseases such as osteomyelitis, imperfect osteogenesis, Paget's disease, osteoporosis, and others.

Since the fracture is primarily a trauma,There are two types of it depending on how damaged the surrounding tissues are. In the presence of rupture of muscle fibers and skin, it is an open fracture. If the bone of the skeleton that has lost integrity does not damage the skin, then such a fracture refers to the closed one. Open fractures in turn are divided into primary and secondary: for the first is characterized by a large wound surface with the release of bone fragments outward, for the secondary - a small wound on the skin caused by a puncture of the skin with bone fragments from the inside.

fracture of humerus

The nature of the fracture of the bones of the skeleton also producedseveral groups of fractures of bones: helical, oblique, transverse and longitudinal, fragmented, fragmentary and comminuted, nested, detached and compression.

For example, fracture of the humerus or thigh more oftenall is oblique, transverse or longitudinal. First of all, this is due to the structure of these bones, as well as their increased vulnerability. Often when the limbs are injured, there is a dislocation and fracture. This phenomenon in medicine was called fracture. Most often they are diagnosed with injuries of the hip, knee, elbow and ankle.

Symptoms and signs of fractures

The appearance of a fracture of any bone can be easilydiagnose. Common symptoms in the violation of bone tissue are: acute or dull pain, edema of adjacent tissues, atypical mobility, impaired motor function, formation of a hematoma.

A fracture of the humerus or thigh may alsoaccompanied by the appearance of a characteristic protrusion and blueness of the fingers. When the bone is shifted, the limb is shortened, the appearance of severe pain when trying to move it. If the joint is fractured, the contours of the damaged part of the body are smoothed out in the patient, and a noticeable swelling due to the accumulation of blood in it also appears. Open fractures are characterized by the presence of a wound with bleeding, in which fragments of bone can be seen.

fractures of limbs

Diagnosis of bone fractures

The first diagnostic measure for suspicionat a fracture - this, of course, external examination and palpation. With their help, you can find signs such as the appearance of a tumor and an increase in the sensitivity of tissues, as well as the inability to perform movements of the injured part of the body.

The most clear idea of ​​type and formfracture can be obtained by radiographic examination. This type of diagnosis allows you to locate the location of bone fragments, their number. As a rule, X-rays are made in two projections, since this is precisely what allows to confirm or disprove the presence of displacement of bone fragments.

First aid for fracture

with a fracture

If there is a suspicion of a fracture, it is important to maximizeshort time to immobilize the limb or other injured part of the body with the help of special devices or improvised means. The tire at a fracture should fix not only it directly, but also nearby joints. It is important to avoid excessive compression of soft tissues. If there is an open fracture on the wound, an insulating (if possible sterile) dressing is applied.

Severe pain can be reduced by medicinalpreparations. In place of the fracture, you should also place something cold: an ice pack, a bottle of water, and so on. When the ribs are broken, the patient is bandaged with the elastic material on the exhalation. After these procedures, you can transport the victim to the nearest hospital.

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